Sunday, January 22, 2012

Etta James- her hard life is over ....

Απο τα ΝΈΑ

Ένα εικοσιτετράωρο έπειτα απο τον Τζονι Οτις ( 18 Ιανουάριου 2012) τον άνθρωπο που την ανακάλυψε ως καλλιτέχνιδα και συνέθεσε την πρώτη της επιτυχία " The wallflower" έφυγε απο την ζωη στο Λος Αντζελες ,σε ηλικία 73 ετών απο επιπλοκες λευχαιμιας η θρυλική τραγουδίστρια του ρυθμ έν μπλουζ Ετα Τζειμς.
η Τζειμσετ Χοκινς όπως ήταν το πραγματικό της όνομα γεννήθηκε το 1938 . Οι θαυμαστές της συμμερίζονται την άποψη του βετεράνου μουσικού παραγωγού Τζερι Γουεξλερ υ την είχε αποκαλέσει " τη μεγαλύτερη απο όλους τους σύγχρονους τραγουδιστές του μπλουζ.... Την αδιαφιλονικητη Μητέρα Γη".
Ερμηνεύτρια μεγάλων επιτυχιών όπως το At last, something's got a hold on me, και το Tell mamma, η Ετα Τζειμς είχε τιμηθεί στη διάρκεια της καριέρας της με τέσσερα βραβεία Grammy και 17 Blues music awards.



From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Etta James

James in 2006 in Lansing, Michigan
Background information
Birth name Jamesetta Hawkins
Also known as Miss Peaches,
The Matriarch of R&B
Born January 25, 1938
Los Angeles, California, U.S.
Died January 20, 2012 (aged 73)
Riverside, California, U.S.
Genres Blues, R&B, rock and roll, jazz, soul, gospel
Occupations Singer
Instruments Vocals, guitar
Years active 1954–2012
Labels Modern, Chess/MCA Records, Argo, Crown, Cadet, Island/PolyGram Records, Private Music/RCA, RCA Victor Records, Elektra, Virgin/EMI Records, Verve Forecast/Universal Records
Associated acts Harvey Fuqua, Johnny Otis, Sugar Pie DeSanto
Etta James (born Jamesetta Hawkins; January 25, 1938 – January 20, 2012) was an American singer whose style spanned a variety of music genres including blues, rhythm and blues, rock and roll, soul, gospel and jazz. Starting her career in the mid 1950s, she gained fame with hits such as "Dance With Me, Henry", "At Last", "Tell Mama", and "I'd Rather Go Blind" for which she claimed she wrote the lyrics.[1] She faced a number of personal problems, including drug addiction, before making a musical resurgence in the late 1980s with the album The Seven Year Itch.[2]
She is regarded as having bridged the gap between rhythm and blues and rock and roll, and is the winner of six Grammys and 17 Blues Music Awards. She was inducted into the Rock & Roll Hall of Fame in 1993, the Blues Hall of Fame in 2001, and the Grammy Hall of Fame in both 1999 and 2008.[3] Rolling Stone ranked James number 22 on their list of the 100 Greatest Singers of All Time and number 62 on the list of the 100 Greatest Artists.[4][5]


Early life and early career: 1938–1959

Jamesetta Hawkins was born on January 25, 1938, in Los Angeles, California, to Dorothy Hawkins, who was only 14 at the time. Her father has never been identified, but was rumored possibly to be white (Caucasian).[6] James speculated that her father was the pool player, Rudolf "Minnesota Fats" Wanderone, and met him briefly in 1987.[7] Due to her mother being often absent carrying on relationships with various men, James lived with a series of caregivers, most notably "Sarge" and "Mama" Lu. James called her mother "the Mystery Lady".[6]
James received her first professional vocal training at the age of five from James Earle Hines, musical director of the Echoes of Eden choir, at the St. Paul Baptist Church in Los Angeles. She became a popular singing attraction at the church, and Sarge tried to pressure the church into paying him money for her singing, but they refused. During drunken poker games at home, he would wake James up in the early hours of the morning and force her through beatings to sing for his friends. As she was a bed-wetter, and often soaked with her own urine on these occasions, the trauma of being forced to sing meant she had a life-long reluctance to sing on demand.[8]
In 1950 Mama Lu died, and James' real mother took her to the Fillmore district in San Francisco.[9] Within a couple of years, James began listening to doo-wop and was inspired to form a girl group, called the Creolettes (due to the members' light skinned complexions). The 14-year-old girls met musician Johnny Otis. Stories on how they met vary including Otis' version in which James had come to his hotel after one of his performances in the city and persuaded him to audition her. Another story came that Otis spotted the group performing at a Los Angeles nightclub and sought them to record his "answer song" to Hank Ballard's "Work With Me, Annie". Nonetheless, Otis took the group under his wing, helping them sign to Modern Records and changing their name from the Creolettes to the Peaches and gave the singer her stage name reversing Jamesetta into Etta James. James recorded the version, which she was allowed to co-author, in 1954, and the song was released in early 1955 as "Dance with Me, Henry". Originally the name of the song was "Roll With Me, Henry" but was changed to avoid censorship due to the subtle title. In February of that year, the song reached number one on the Hot Rhythm & Blues Tracks chart.[10] Its success gave the group an opening spot on Little Richard's national tour.[11]
While on tour with Richard, pop singer Georgia Gibbs recorded her version of James' song, which was released under the title "The Wallflower", and became a crossover hit, reaching number one on the Billboard Hot 100, which angered James. After leaving the Peaches, James had another R&B hit with "Good Rockin' Daddy", but struggled with follow-ups. When her contract with Modern came up in 1960, she decided to sign with Leonard Chess' namesake label, Chess Records, and shortly afterwards got involved in a relationship with singer Harvey Fuqua, founder of the doo-wop group, The Moonglows.
Bobby Murray, aka "Taters", toured with Etta James for 20 years. He wrote that James had her first hit single when she was 15 years of age and went steady with B.B. King when she was 16. Etta James believed the hit single "Sweet Sixteen" by B.B. King was about her.[12]


Chess years: 1960–1978

James was put on the Chess subsidiary label Argo (and later recorded with another subsidiary, Cadet) and had her first hit singles under duets with Fuqua including "If I Can't Have You" and "Spoonful". Her first solo hit was the doo-wop styled rhythm and blues number, "All I Could Do Was Cry", becoming a number two R&B hit.[13] Leonard Chess had envisioned James as a classic ballad stylist who had potential to cross over to the pop charts and soon surrounded the singer with violins and other string instruments.[13] The first string-laden ballad James recorded was "My Dearest Darling", which peaked in the top five of the R&B chart. James was notable singing background vocals on label mate Chuck Berry's "Back in the USA".[14]


Vinyl recording of "At Last"/"I Just Want to Make Love"
Her debut album, At Last!, was released in late 1960 and was noted for its varied choice in music from jazz standards to blues numbers to doo-wop and rhythm and blues (R&B).[15] The album also included James' future classic, "I Just Want to Make Love to You" and "A Sunday Kind of Love". In early 1961, James released what has become her signature song, "At Last", which reached number two on the R&B chart and number 47 on the Billboard Hot 100. Though the song wasn't as successful as expected, it has become the most remembered version of the song.[14] James followed that up with "Trust in Me", which also included string instruments.[13] Later that same year, James released a second studio album, The Second Time Around. The album took the same direction as her previous album, covering many jazz and pop standards, and using strings on many of the songs spawning two hit singles, "The Fool That I Am" and "Don't Cry Baby".[16]
James started adding gospel elements in her music the following year releasing "Something's Got a Hold on Me", which peaked at number four on the R&B chart and was also a top 40 pop hit.[17] That success was quickly followed by "Stop the Wedding", which reached number six on the R&B charts and also had gospel elements.[14] In 1963, she had another major hit with "Pushover" and released the live album Etta James Rocks the House, which was recorded at the New Era Club in Nashville, Tennessee.[13] After a couple years scoring minor hits, James' career started to suffer after 1965. After a period of isolation, James returned to recording in 1967 and reemerged with more ballsy R&B numbers thanks to her recording at the legendary Fame Studios in Muscle Shoals, Alabama releasing her comeback hit "Tell Mama", which was co-written by Clarence Carter and reached number ten R&B and number twenty three pop. An album of the same name was also released that year and included her take of Otis Redding's "Security".[18] The B-side of "Tell Mama" was "I'd Rather Go Blind", which became a blues classic in its own right and was recorded by many other artists. She wrote in her autobiography Rage To Survive that she heard the song outlined by her friend Ellington "Fugi" Jordan when she visited him in prison.[19] According to her account, she wrote the rest of the song with Jordan, but for tax reasons gave her songwriting credit to her partner at the time, Billy Foster.
Following this success, James became an on-demand concert performer though she never again reached the heyday of her early-to-mid 1960s success. She continued to chart in the R&B Top 40 in the early 1970s with singles such as "Losers Weepers" (1970) and "I Found a Love" (1972). Though James continued to record for Chess, she was devastated by the death of Chess founder Leonard Chess in 1969. James ventured into rock and funk with the release of her self-titled album in 1973 with production from famed rock producer Gabriel Mekler, who had worked with Steppenwolf and Janis Joplin, who had admired James and had covered "Tell Mama" in concert. The album, known for its mixtures of musical styles, was nominated for a Grammy Award.[18] The album didn't produce any major hits, neither did the follow-up, Out On the Street Again, in 1974, though like Etta James before it, the album was also critically acclaimed. James continued to record for Chess releasing two more albums in 1978, Etta Is Betta Than Evah and Deep in the Night, which saw the singer incorporating more rock-based music in her repertoire.[13] That same year, James was the opening act for The Rolling Stones and also performed at the Montreal Jazz Festival. Following this brief success, however, she left Chess Records and didn't record for another ten years as she struggled with drug addiction and alcoholism for the better part of a decade.


Later career: 1988–2012



Etta James in 1990
Though she continued to perform, little was heard of Etta James until 1987 when she was seen performing "Rock & Roll Music" with Chuck Berry on his "Hail! Hail! Rock 'n' Roll" documentary. In 1989, James signed with Island Records and released the album Seven Year Itch. The album was produced by Barry Beckett. She released a second album, also produced by Barry Beckett, in 1989 titled Stickin' to My Guns. Both albums were recorded at FAME Studios.[18] James participated in rap singer Def Jef for the song "Droppin' Rhymes on Drums", which mixed James' jazz vocals with hip-hop. In 1992, James released The Right Time produced by Jerry Wexler on Elektra Records and the following year, James was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.[10] James signed with Private Music Records in 1993 and recorded the Billie Holiday tribute album Mystery Lady: Songs of Billie Holiday.[17] The album later set a trend for James' music to incorporate more jazz elements.[13] The album won James her first Grammy Awards for best jazz vocal performance in 1994. In 1995, she released the David Ritz-co authored autobiography, A Rage to Survive, and recorded the album Time After Time. Three years later she issued the Christmas album Etta James Christmas in 1998.[13]
By the mid-1990s, James' earlier classic music was included in commercials including, most notably, "I Just Wanna Make Love to You". Due to exposure of the song in a UK commercial, the song reached the top ten of the UK charts in 1996.[10] Continuing to record for Private Music, she released the blues album Matriarch of the Blues in 2000, which had James returning to her R&B roots with Rolling Stone hailing it as a "solid return to roots", further stating that the album found the singer "reclaiming her throne — and defying anyone to knock her off it."[17] In 2001, she was inducted into the Blues Hall of Fame and the Rockabilly Hall of Fame, the latter for her contributions to the developments of both rock and roll music and rockabilly. In 2003, she received a Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award. Her 2004 release, Blue Gardenia, returned James to a jazz music style. James' final album for Private Music, Let's Roll, was released in 2005 and won James a Grammy for best contemporary blues album.[20]


Etta James performing in San Jose, California, in 2000.
In 2004, Rolling Stone Magazine ranked her #62 on their list of the 100 Greatest Artists of All Time.[21] James has performed at the top world jazz festivals in the world, such as the Montreux Jazz Festival in 1977, 1989, 1990 and 1993,[22] performed nine times at the legendary Monterey Jazz Festival, and the San Francisco Jazz Festival five times. She also performs often at free city outdoor summer arts festivals throughout the US.
In 2008, James was portrayed by Beyoncé Knowles in the film, Cadillac Records, loosely based on the rise and fall of James' label of 18 years, Chess Records, and how label founder and producer Leonard Chess helped the career of James and other label mates, though it was noted that James was successful prior to her signing with Chess Records.[23] In the film, Etta James' character is in constant search to seek the recognition as well as love from an infamous pool shark named Minnesota Fats, whom she believed to be her white biological father.[24] The film also portrayed "At Last" as a huge pop hit, but the single only charted briefly when it was initially released and James had bigger hits. It also indicated that James and Chess, who were 21 years apart in age, were lovers but that was also inaccurate. Though James and Knowles were later seen at a red carpet event following the film's release embracing each other, James expressed her displeasure with Knowles at a Seattle concert in January 2009, a few days after Knowles sang her song, "At Last", at the first inaugural ball for Barack Obama. James claimed she "can't stand Beyoncé" and that Knowles would "get her ass whipped".[25] James later said that her remarks about Knowles were a joke but admitted she was hurt that she was not invited to sing her song and that she could've performed it better.[26]
In April 2009, the 71-year-old James made her final television appearance performing "At Last" during an appearance on Dancing with the Stars. In May 2009, James received the Soul/Blues Female Artist of the Year award from the Blues Foundation, the ninth time James had won the award. James carried on touring but by 2010 had to cancel concert dates to her gradually failing health after it was revealed that she was suffering from dementia and leukemia. In November 2011, James released her final album, The Dreamer, which was critically acclaimed upon its release. James announced via her manager's statement that this would be her final album. On January 8, 2012, her continuing relevance was affirmed when Avicii reached number 1 on Beatport with the song "Levels", which samples her song "Something's Got a Hold on Me". A vocal sample of James' 1962 song, "Something's Got a Hold On Me," was also sampled by rapper Flo Rida in his 2011 single, "Good Feeling."[27]

Style and influence

James's musical style changed during the course of her career. When beginning her recording career in the mid-50s, James was marketed as an R&B and doo wop singer.[13] After signing with Chess Records in 1960, James broke through as a traditional pop-styled singer, covering jazz and pop music standards on her debut album, At Last!.[28] James's voice deepened and coarsened, moving her musical style in her later years into the genres of soul and jazz.[13]
Etta James had once been considered one of the most overlooked blues and R&B musicians in American music history. It wasn't until the early 1990s when James began receiving major industry awards from the Grammys and the Blues Foundation that she began to receive wide recognition. In 2011 James was voted one the Best Singers On Earth by viewers to Btoe, the multimedia Web site founded by Colin Larkin, creator of the Encyclopedia of Popular Music. In recent years, she has been seen as bridging the gap between rhythm and blues and rock and roll. James has influenced a wide variety of American musicians including Diana Ross, Christina Aguilera, Janis Joplin, Bonnie Raitt, Shemekia Copeland,[17] and Hayley Williams of Paramore[29] as well as British artists The Rolling Stones,[30] Rod Stewart,[31] Elkie Brooks,[32] Amy Winehouse,[31] Paloma Faith,[33] Joss Stone[34] and Adele.[35]

Illness and death

James was hospitalized in January 2010 to treat an infection caused by MRSA, a bacterium that is resistant to antibiotic treatment. During her hospitalization, her son Donto revealed that James had been diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease in 2008, and attributed her previous comments about Beyoncé Knowles to "drug induced dementia".[36]
She was diagnosed with leukemia in early 2011. The illness was announced as terminal by Dr. Elaine James (no relation) in December 2011, in a plea for prayers from fans.[37] On January 20, 2012, longtime friend and manager, Lupe De Leon, stated that James had died with her husband and sons by her side at Riverside Community Hospital in Riverside, California.[38] De Leon said "It's a tremendous loss for her fans around the world, ... [s]he'll be missed. A great American singer. Her music defied category."[39] Fellow musicians also paid tribute to James. Kelly Rowland described her as "Classic. One of a kind. Pure soul."[39] Bryan Adams believed that James possessed "one of the best voices of all time".[39]

Personal life

James encountered a string of legal problems during the early 1970s due to her heroin addiction. She was continuously in and out of rehabilitation centers, including the Tarzana Rehabilitation Center, in Los Angeles, California. Her husband Artis Mills, whom she married in 1969, accepted responsibility when they were both arrested for heroin possession and served a 10-year prison sentence.[40] He was released from prison in 1982 and was still married to James at her death.[17] She was also arrested around the same time for her drug addiction, accused of cashing bad checks, forgery and possession of heroin.[41] In 1974, James was sentenced to drug treatment instead of serving time in prison. She was in the Tarzana Psychiatric Hospital for 17 months, at age 36, and went through a great struggle at the start of treatment. She later stated in her autobiography that the time she spent in the hospital changed her life. However, after leaving treatment, her substance abuse continued into the 1980s, after she developed a relationship with a man who was also using drugs. In 1988, at the age of 50, she entered the Betty Ford Center, in Palm Springs, California, for treatment.[17] In 2010, she received treatment for a dependency on painkillers.[42]
James had two sons, Donto and Sametto. Both started performing with their mother in 2003—Donto on drums and Sametto on bass guitar.[43]

Awards

From 1989, James received over 30 awards and recognitions from eight different organizations, including the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum and the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences which organizes the Grammys.
In 1989, the newly formed Rhythm and Blues Foundation included James in their first Pioneer Awards for artists whose "lifelong contributions have been instrumental in the development of Rhythm & Blues music".[44] The following year, 1990, she received an NAACP Image Award, which is given for "outstanding achievements and performances of people of color in the arts";[45] an award she cherished as it "was coming from my own people".[46]
1993, Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
2001, Rockabilly Hall of Fame
2003, Hollywood Chamber of Commerce Hollywood Walk of Fame, star at 7080 Hollywood Blvd, and Broadcast Music, Inc. (BMI) Lifetime Achievement Award[47]
2006, Billboard R&B Founders Award[48]
Grammys
The Grammy Awards are awarded annually by the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences. James has received six Grammy Awards. Her first was in 1994, when she was awarded Best Jazz Vocal Performance for the album Mystery Lady, which consisted of covers of Billie Holiday songs.[49] Two other albums have also won awards, Let's Roll (Best Contemporary Blues Album) in 2003, and Blues To The Bone (Best Traditional Blues Album) in 2004. Two of her early songs have been given Grammy Hall of Fame Awards for "qualitative or historical significance": "At Last", in 1999,[50] and "The Wallflower (Dance with Me, Henry)" in 2008.[51] In 2003, she was given the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award.[52]
Year Nominated work Award Result
1961 "All I Could Do Was Cry" Best Rhythm & Blues Performance Nominated
1962 "The Fool That I Am" Best Rhythm & Blues Performance Nominated
1968 "Tell Mama" Best R&B Solo Vocal Performance, Female Nominated
1969 "Security" Nominated
1974 Etta James Nominated
1975 "St. Louis Blues" Nominated
1989 "Seven Year Itch" Best Contemporary Blues Recording Nominated
1991 Stickin' to My Guns Nominated
1993 The Right Time Nominated
1995 Mystery Lady - Songs of Billie Holiday Best Jazz Vocal Performance Won
1999 "At Last" Grammy Hall of Fame Award Inducted
Life, Love & Blues Best Contemporary Blues Album Nominated
2000 Heart of a Woman Best Jazz Vocal Performance Nominated
2002 Matriarch of the Blues Best Contemporary Blues Album Nominated
2003 Etta James Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award Inducted
2004 Let's Roll Best Contemporary Blues Album Won
2005 Let's Roll Best Traditional Blues Album Won
2008 "The Wallflower" Grammy Hall of Fame Award Inducted
Blues Foundation
The members of the Blues Foundation, a non-profit organization set up in Memphis, Tennessee, to foster the blues and its heritage,[53] have nominated James for a Blues Music Award nearly every year since its founding in 1980; and she has received some form of Blues Female Artist of the Year award 14 times since 1989, continuously from 1999 to 2007.[54] In addition, the albums Life, Love, & The Blues (1999), Burnin' Down The House (2003), and Let's Roll (2004) were awarded Soul/Blues Album of the Year,[54] and in 2001 she was inducted into the Blues Hall of Fame.[49]
See also

Etta James discography
References

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^ Liz Sonneborn (2002). A to Z of American women in the performing arts. Infobase Publishing. p. 116. Retrieved May 22, 2011.
^ Down Beat Magazine July 27, 2007 Etta James Hospitalized, Tour Suspended
^ "100 Greatest Singers of All Time". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 2008-11-11.
^ "100 Greatest Singers of All Time". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 2008-11-11.
^ a b Bob Gulla (2008). Icons of R&B and Soul. ABC-CLIO. p. 149. Retrieved May 21, 2011.
^ Denise Quan (September 25, 2002). "CNN.com — A life singing the blues". Retrieved May 21, 2011.
^ Etta James, David Ritz. Rage to Survive: the Etta James Story. Da Capo Press, 2003. p. 20. Retrieved May 21, 2011.
^ Etta James, David Ritz. Rage to Survive: the Etta James Story. Da Capo Press, 2003. p. 31. Retrieved May 21, 2011.
^ a b c "Etta James – inductee". Rock & Roll Hall of Fame. Archived from the original on 2006-11-23. Retrieved 2006-12-05.
^ White, Charles (2003), pp. 68, 78. The Life and Times of Little Richard: The Authorised Biography. Omnibus Press.
^ "Taters and Other Fascinating People". Noquarterusa.net. Retrieved January 20, 2012.
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^ Unterberger, Richie. "The Second Time Around album review". allmusic. Retrieved 2008-12-05.
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^ "The Truth Behind Cadillac Records"www,lipstick.alley.com [Retrieved January 20, 2012.]
^ "Etta James to Beyonce: I'll Whoop Your Ass!". TMZ.com. Retrieved January 31, 2010.
^ "Etta James says rip on Beyonce was a joke". MSNBC. Retrieved January 31, 2010.
^ Vena, Jocelyn (2012-01-20). "Etta James Remembered By will.i.am, Hayley Williams". MTV.com. Retrieved 2012-01-20.
^ Dahl, Bill. "Tell Mama album review". allmusic. Retrieved 2008-12-08.
^ "Musicians Mourn Etta James". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 2012-01-21.
^ "Etta James: A life in music". www.telegraph.co.uk. January 21, 2012. Retrieved January 21, 2012.
^ a b "Grammy-award winning singer Etta James dies at 73 after battle with leukaemia". www.dailymail.co.uk. 20 January 2012. Retrieved 22 January 2012.
^ "Book Elkie Brooks with JazzCo". Jazzbookings.com. Retrieved 2011-01-18.
^ "Who is Paloma Faith?". 4Music. 2010-04-19. Retrieved 2011-01-18.
^ "100 Greatest Artists of all Time:Etta James". www.rollingstone.com. Retrieved 2011-01-18.
^ "Interview: Adele – Archive | State Magazine". State.ie. 2008-03-08. Retrieved 2011-01-18.
^ "Hospitalized Etta James battling Alzheimer's, infection, son says". CNN. 2010-01-30. Retrieved January 31, 2010.
^ "Doctors ask for prayers for 'At Last' singer, 73". Huffington Post. Retrieved January 21, 2012.
^ Leopold, Todd. "Singing legend Etta James dies at 73". Cnn. Retrieved January 20, 2012.
^ a b c "Etta James: Soul legend dies in California". BBC News. January 20, 2012. Retrieved January 22, 2012.
^ "How Etta Got Her Groove Back". People.com. Retrieved 2009-02-06.
^ "Etta James". NNDB.com. Retrieved 2008-12-05.
^ "Son says singer Etta James changes hospitals". USA Today. 2010-02-11. Retrieved 2010-05-02.
^ Thor Christensen (April 23, 2004). "James pours heart, soul into set To the 'Last'". Dallas Morning News. Retrieved March 29, 2011.
^ "Rhythm & Blues Foundation - Preserving America’s Soul". Retrieved May 22, 2011.
^ "The 42nd NAACP Image Awards - History". Retrieved May 22, 2011.
^ Etta James, David Ritz. Rage to Survive: the Etta James Story. Da Capo Press, 2003. p. 256.
^ "Recording Academy Honors Etta James, Simon & Garfunkel, Alan Lomax | News". BMI.com. 2002-12-08. Retrieved 2011-07-30.
^ Up for Discussion Jump to Forums. "Billboard Honors Etta James". Billboard.com. Retrieved 2011-07-30.
^ a b Bob Gulla (2008). Icons of R&B and Soul. ABC-CLIO. p. 164. Retrieved May 21, 2011.
^ "Grammy Hall of Fame Induction". Grammy.org. Retrieved 2011-07-30.
^ "Grammy Hall of Fame Induction". Grammy.org. Retrieved 2011-07-30.
^ Greg Winter (December 2002). CMJ New Music Report - Music News. Retrieved May 22, 2011.
^ "The Blues Foundation: About The Blues Foundation". Retrieved May 22, 2011.
^ a b "The Blues Foundation: Past Blues Music Awards". Retrieved May 22, 2011.
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